Term

Definition

Agency savings

The difference between the financial costs and benefits of running on-demand transportation, from the point of view of the transportation provider.

Boarding

The physical act of getting onto a vehicle at pick-up before the vehicle is in motion.

Capital costs

Fixed, one-time expenses incurred by an organization. In the context of on-demand transportation, these costs include infrastructure and vehicle fleets.

Data Layers

Layers of spatial information that can be toggled on and off to derive insights about a particular area. Similar to ‘Datasets’.

Datasets

A collection of data that can be visualized spatially in Realize, and can be used to define a Demand Segment.

Dedicated fleet

Vehicles that are owned wholly by the transit provider.

Demand model

The framework used to predict demand for travel within the Service Zones. This can be set manually, or Realize can be used to predict demand.

Demand Segment

A group of riders that behave in a similar way, and whose home locations can be described by a given Dataset. For example, a ‘Seniors’ Demand Segment would be based on a Dataset of all seniors’ homes in a given area. Demand Segments are used to drive the demand model.

Depreciation period

The total time period where the cost of an asset is deducted to cover its useful life.

Detour

Route deviation taken by a shared vehicle when passengers are added to that vehicle

Detour flexibility

The maximum amount of travel time added to the overall trip due to a detour. ‘Low’ detour flexibility is 5 minutes, ‘medium’ is 12.5 minutes, and ‘high’ is 30 mins.

Driver shift

The time during which a transit driver is working or on-call waiting for trip requests to be logged into the system. Interchangeable with ‘Duty’.

Dropoff

A time and place where the driver is meant to stop and let the rider out of the vehicle.

Duty

The time during which a transit driver is working or on-call waiting for trip requests to be logged into the system. Interchangeable with ‘Driver shift’.

Environmental savings

The difference between the monetized costs and benefits of running on-demand transportation, from the perspective of the environment.

Fare revenue

The additional revenue made by an agency from the fares paid by riders for their trips.

Fleet

A set of resources owned by a transportation operator, which can include drivers, vehicles, and duties. Fleets can be shared across multiple Services.

Fleet connection

The joining of a Fleet to a Service, such that the Fleet supplies its vehicles and driver duties to satisfy the demand for the Service. A Fleet can be connected to multiple Services, and its vehicle hours will be shared proportionally.

General Transit Feed Specification (GTFS)

The common format for fixed-route transportation data around the world. Read more at https://developers.google.com/transit/gtfs

Greenhouse gases (GHGs)

Gases in Earth's atmosphere that trap heat, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4).

Job density

The number of jobs located in each unit of area. This is reported on a per-Zone basis.

Key Performance Indicator (KPI)

A measurable value that demonstrates the effectiveness of the simulated service.

Mass transit

Refers to general fixed-route transportation, such as scheduled bus, tram or train service that runs on a predetermined route.

Microtransit

A form of on-demand transit that utilizes small-scale vehicles like shuttles or vans to provide fixed-schedule and route service, as well as on-demand scheduling and flexible routes.

Microtransit potential

The total number of daily microtransit trips that are expected to originate from each neighbourhood in a given area. This Dataset is created based on data from Spare’s operations across the world.

Mode shift

The proportional change from one form of transportation to another. For example, switching from trips taken on personal vehicles to trips taken in on-demand vehicles.

Mode split

The proportion of people that use each of the various modes of transportation.

Non-dedicated fleet

A fleet of vehicles non-owned outright by the transit provider. For example, in a ride-share situation, the ride-share provider contracts the actual driving to private individuals who own their own cars.

Operational costs

Expenses incurred by an organization for the day-to-day running of its business. In the context of on-demand transportation, these costs include driver wages, fuel, insurance and vehicle maintenance.

On-demand transit

Umbrella term to describe any kind of transportation that is a result of service request. If no demand for the service is made, then the vehicle is not dispatched. On-demand transit also doesn’t run on a schedule.

Paratransit

Denotes specialized transit service for individuals with mobility limitations that prevent them from using the regular transit system. It is generally a scheduled, door-to-door service. Also known as ‘specialized transit’.

Paratransit potential

The total number of daily paratransit trips that are expected to originate from each neighbourhood in a given area. This Dataset is created based on data from Spare’s operations across the world.

Passenger

Person using a transit service for transportation purposes. Also known as a ‘Rider’.

Pickup

A time and place where the rider is meant to board the vehicle.

Pooled trips ratio

Percentage of trips where a passenger shared their ride with another passenger.

Population density

The number of people living in each unit of area. This is reported on a per-Zone basis.

Project

A sandbox environment within Realize to test an idea or hypothesis about the feasibility of on-demand.

Request

The actual ‘ask’ an individual makes for transportation.

Return on Investment (ROI)

A financial metric that measures the profitability of an investment. It is presented as a ratio between net income and investment over a given period. A ratio above 1 implies profitability, while a ratio below 1 implies net loss.

Rider

Person using a transit service for transportation purposes. Also known as a ‘Passenger’.

Ridership

Total number of riders boarding a service. Usually reported on a daily basis.

Service

A transportation system with many configuration options. A Project can contain multiple Services with different areas, hours, fares, and levels of responsiveness.

Service boundaries

The spatial extent in which a Service operates. A Service’s boundaries are controlled by the shape of its Zones.

Service days

The number of days per month that the Service operates. For example, a Service operated Monday–Friday would equate to 20 service days per month.

Service hours

The time period during which a Service is available for booking by riders.

Societal savings

The difference between the monetized costs and benefits of running on-demand transportation, from the perspective of society.

Specialized transit

Denotes specialized transit service for individuals with mobility limitations that prevent them from using the regular transit system. It is generally a scheduled, door-to-door service. Also known as ‘paratransit’.

Stop

A predefined location where pickups and dropoffs can happen.

Travel distance

Distance travelled by individual riders in the service period.

Travel duration

Travel time of individual riders in the service period.

Trip fare

The fare paid by a rider for taking a trip on a Service.

Trip temporal distribution

The proportion of travel taking place at different times of day, for a given trip type. Trip temporal distributions are provided for outbound (home → destination) and inbound (destination → home) trips.

Trip type

The reason for travel for a given rider. When generating simulated trips, Realize assigns principal types to each trip, including commuting, shopping and entertainment, healthcare, outdoor recreation, and visiting friends and family.

Wait time

The amount of time that elapses between when a trip booking is logged and when a vehicle arrives to pick up the passenger.

Vehicle hours

Hours completed by all operational vehicles, including non-revenue time.

Vehicle occupancy rate

The number of occupants in a vehicle, including the driver.

Zone

Geographical area in which on-demand transportation is accessible to a specific group of riders.

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